Distressed Settlers Report, 1824

 

Transcribed by Lynn McLeod from a printed pamphlet amongst Government Despatches in CO48/63 at the National Archives in Kew, London

 

Authentic Copies of a Correspondence which took place in consequence of a Statement made at The General Annual Meeting of the Society for the Relief of Distressed Settlers in Cape Town, August 18th, 1824 reflecting on the conduct and character of the Landdrost of Albany.

Cape Town: 1824
Printed at the Government Press.

A statement made by the Reverend Dr. PHILIP, at the General Annual Meeting of the Society for the Relief of Distressed Settlers; at Cape Town, on the 18th of August, 1824, having deeply implicated the Character of the Landdrost of Albany, it was deemed necessary by the Government to refer immediately to that Officer for an explanation of the alleged neglect; and in order more satisfactorily to investigate every circumstance relative to the charge, to solicit Dr. PHILIP to furnish more minute particulars, with the name of the Officer, as well as that of the suffering Party.

This determination gave rise to the following Correspondence and Documents, which, as the subject is of extreme import to the Landdrost of Albany, and his Friends, as well as to the character of the Colonial Government, have been printed, as the most convenient mode of bringing them under the perusal of those Gentlemen whose humanity and liberality have induced them to take a lively interest in the Settlers'' cause.

 

(Copy – A)

Colonial Officer,

20th August, 1824

Sir,

At the Annual Meeting of the Settlers'' Fund, which took place here on Wednesday, Dr. PHILIP made a Statement, of which the enclosed is considered to be the substances:-

His Excellency the Governor deems it a duty he owes to you, as well as to the character of his Government, to request that you will immediately obtain every information upon the subject alluded to by Dr. PHILIP, and report to him thereon. In the mean time, His Excellency has called on Dr. PHILIP, by letter, desiring to know if the accompanying Statement be the substance of what fell from him at the Meeting on the 18th instant; and requiring more minute particulars from him – The result of this communication shall be forwarded to you by the next post.

His Excellency is also informed, that Mr. RUTHERFOORD, in opposing a proposition that the Landdrost and Heemraden, and the resident Chaplain, (of the Established Church,) at Graham''s Town, should be added to the Sub-Committee in Albany, stated, “that he knew that the Landdrost had neither time to permit him to attend to the objects of the Society, - nor had he the inclination.”

You will, of course, ascertain the name of the Officer alluded to.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

(Signed,) P G BRINK

To: Harry RIVERS, Esq., Landdrost of Albany.

(Copy :- Enclosure to A)

Cape Town,

18th August, 1824.

At a meeting of the Subscribers to the Society for the Relief of the Distressed Settlers, held this Day, a Resolution was proposed by Mr. Wilberforce BIRD, that the Committee for the ensuing Year, should be instructed to augment their Sub-Committee in Albany, by requesting the Landdrost and Heemraden of that District, and the Clergyman of the Established Church in Graham''s Town, to co-operate with them in affording information to the Committee as to the condition of the several Settlers and their respective claims to relief.

Dr. PHILIP took occasion in opposing Mr. BIRD''s resolution to declare unreservedly, that, when he was in the Albany District last January, a fact had come to his knowledge, which proved the indifference of the local authority to the distresses of the Settlers. That an officer riding in the neighbourhood of his post, and adjacent to one of the locations, had discovered a scene of unexampled distress in one of the families of the Settlers. A poor woman was confined in child-bed, her husband was lying dangerously ill in the same room; she had the preceding day buried her child in the garden, and the whole family were utterly destitute – they had actually been without food for two days. On becoming acquainted with their misery, the officer returned to his post, and sent them immediate relief, and lost no time in writing to the Landdrost, for the purpose of bringing this case of distress to his knowledge. He never received any answer whatever, and went himself to Graham''s Town, where he was equally unsuccessful in obtaining any relief for the poor family from the authorities there, and returned to his post, bringing with him the small contributions of private individuals in Graham''s Town.

 

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(Copy – B)

Colonial Office

20th August 1824

Sir,

The substance of the speech delivered by you on Wednesday last at the Annual Meeting of the Settlers'' Fund (contained in the enclosed paper Vide Enclosure to A) having been brought to the knowledge of His Excellency the Governor, I am directed by him to request, that you will inform him relative to the correctness of the information he has received of the words which dropped from you on that occasion, and also to solicit you to furnish His Excellency with the names of the parties, and more minute particulars of the transaction in question.

His Excellency cannot avoid expressing his deep regret that you withheld from his knowledge at the time, an instance of negligence on the part of the local authorities, which so greatly involved the character of his Government, and the welfare of a portion of the community, whose condition has been an object of his anxious care.

I have the honor to be, Sir

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) P G BRINK

To: Rev. Dr. PHILIP.

 

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(Copy – C)

Cape Town

24th August 1824

My Lord,

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of a letter from the Colonial Office, enclosing what is said to have been the substance of a speech delivered by me on Wednesday last, at the Annual Meeting of the Society for the Relief of Distressed Settlers, and requesting me to inform your Lordship relative to the correctness of the information you had received, of the words which dropped from me on that occasion, and also soliciting me to furnish your Excellency with the names of the parties, and more minute particulars of the transaction in questions.

In compliance with your Lordship''s request I have enclosed a correct statement of the words which fell from me on that occasion, in their connexion with the motion of Mr. W. BIRD, and the discussion which took place on that motion previous to the words I used, respecting which your Lordship now wishes to be informed.

On comparing the words delivered by me with the statement given to your Lordship, as the substance of my speech, you will find several material circumstances in that narrative corrected. That part of the proceedings of the meeting on Wednesday, now laid before your Lordship, will prove I did not, unreservedly, (as stated by the reported,) mention the facts alluded to; but was compelled to do it, after the warning I had given to Mr. BIRD, against persisting in his motion, and in defence of what I considered of vital importance to the Society itself; and that the circumstances in question were not brought forward by me, but with a reluctance of the most painful nature, and visible to the great majority of the gentlemen present at the meeting.

(Notation (a): If the warning here alluded to was intended to deter Mr. W. BIRD from bringing forward his motion, because Dr. PHILIP would accuse the Landdrost of Albany if he persevered in it, Mr. W. BIRD owed it to the character of the Government of which he was himself a member, to provoke the disclosure.)

Further, it is my duty to state that the Landdrost, as mentioned in the reported speech to your Lordship, was not pointed out by me, by his own name, nor by his official designation; one of the local authorities was my expression. Mr. BUCKTON, in commenting on my speech, said I had mentioned the Landdrost; (Notation (b): Notwithstanding Dr. PHILIP asserts, that he did not mention the word Landdrost, any one acquainted with the formation of the local Magistracy must know that the Landdrost is the person implicated, there being, in fact, no Authority without him in the Country Districts. – If the Board of the Landdrost and Heemraden be assembled, he is at the head of it; if it be not assembled, he is the only person possessing individual authority.) I instantly repelled the assertion, and appealed at the same time to the meeting at large, and did not proceed till it was declared by many voices, - you did not mention the Landdrost, - you used no names.

I am made to say, by your Lordship''s reporter, that, having received no answer, he (the officer) went to Graham''s Town himself, where he was equally unsuccessful in obtaining any relief for the poor family from the authorities there. (Notation (c): The Landdrost declares, and is ready to make oath, that he never received any letter to this purport from any officer.)

Your Lordship will perceive, by the words I have sent you as delivered by me, that I said he received no answer to his letter; but I neither aid, that he went to Graham''s Town, nor that he made an unsuccessful application to the local authorities in that place. He assured me on the contrary that he felt so indignant at the neglect of his letter, (Notation (d): Vide Note (c) ) and of the case he had recommended, that he disdained to renew his application to that quarter, in which his former communication had been so neglected, and that he contented himself by doing what he could for the suffering family, among a few friends.

Your Lordship expresses your deep regret, that I withheld from you at the time, the information, and particulars of which you now require. In reply to this remark, I beg your Lordship to consider the object of my visit to Albany, and the principles on which I considered it my duty to adhere to that object. The object of the Society for the Relief of Distressed Settlers, and my own, in visiting them, was their sufferings, that we might know what relief to afford them, not the causes of those sufferings. In all my inquiries relating to the Settlers, and in my introductory speech at the meting of the Society, last Wednesday, I uniformly declared that as far as their sufferings were connected with political causes, I had never in any shape interfered with them – so scrupulous was I on that subject, that in my last tour over the locations, hearing of the political fermentation which then existed at Graham''s Town, though within a few miles of me, I abstained from visiting it, for no other reason, but that I might neither be infected with the spirit of the parties, nor from any connexions I might have with them, involved the object of my journey, with any thing of a political character. To have taken up the complaints of the Settlers against the local authorities, and to have laid them before your Lordship, would have been in my estimation, an interference, quite at variance with the object of the Society, and the character I sustained as the Agent of that Society. (Notation (e): It may perhaps occur to the mind of the reader, on perusing these papers, that it might have been as considerate towards the character of the Government, and as propitious to the welfare of the Settlers, if Dr. PHILIP had conveyed the bare fact, confidentially, to the Governor, through some channel, supposing that the occurrence did take place, which the following papers give reason to conjecture it never did.)

I shall not trouble your Lordship with details of former occurrences; but when your Lordship recollects, that I opposed the motion which is the subject of this correspondence, while it was yet in embryo in the Committee, that I not only cautioned the projectors of this motion against bringing it forward; but that on the day of the public meeting, I gave them the most earnest public warning, saying what I should be compelled to do, if the motion was persisted in, (which can be attested by every gentleman present.) Your Lordship must be satisfied, that it was not my wish, nor intention, (Notation (f): Vide Note (a) ) to have stated those circumstances in public, and that those who brought forward and supported the motion in question, are responsible for the unpleasant termination of the debate.

In addition to what has been already stated, and to show the means that were employed to prevent the consequences that followed, I may also mention that a great part of Mr. BLAIR''s speech at the public meeting was seen and acknowledged by Mr. BIRD to have been delivered, in order to anticipate and prevent the motion.

As it respects the gentleman from whom I received the information, respecting this distressed family, your Lordship will be able to appreciate my motives for not being hasty in giving up his name. Mr. RUTHERFOORD and myself, who were both present when the particulars of the case were related, are ready to make affidavit, (Notation (g): This affidavit, which Dr. PHILIP and Mr. RUTHERFOORD are here stated to be ready to make, only goes to assert that they heard this tale from an officer. The Doctor, at the meeting, in bringing forward the subject, stated the circumstances as a fact. Every man is surely bound in candour and in honour to ascertain that what he is about to relate as a public meeting is fact, before he wounds the feelings or injures the character of any individual, more particularly of one placed in authority.) that the statement I made at the meeting was received, as has been stated; but without the permission of our informer, we cannot, unless compelled to do it, disclose his name.

I have the honor to be, My Lord,

Your Lordship''s most obedient humble servant

(Signed) John PHILIP.

To His Excellency the Right Hon. General Lord Charles Henry SOMERSET, &c, &c, &c.

 

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(Copy – Enclosure to C.)

Mr BIRD''s motion being stated and seconded, I proceeded to argue against its adoption, from want of time to attend to the business on the part of the local authorities, from a misunderstanding existing between the local authorities and the settlers, from the respect due to the feelings of the settlers, and further I objected on all occasions, and in all Countries, to Government having any thing to do with the distribution of charitable funds, collected by voluntary contribution. Then, in the most earnest manner, I warned Mr. BIRD, not to insist upon his motion, and told him, that if he continued to press it, I should be obliged to enter into particulars, which would be extremely painful to my own feelings, and the feelings of others.

After some general discussion, and Mr. BIRD stating his determination to take the sense of the Meeting upon his motion, I rose and spoke as follows:-

“Sir John TRUTER,

I never, on any former occasion in public Meeting, rose with more reluctance than I feel at this moment. Out of regard to the feelings of all parties, I have this day purposely avoided all detail of individual suffering, that might have wounded the feelings of the sufferers themselves, or thrown any thing like a reflection upon those who might have relieved them, and I cannot help regretting, that my friend, Mr. W. BIRD, after the warning I had given him, should compel me to do what is so much against my inclination. Mr. BIRD treated my former arguments against his motion as frivolous. What will he say to this objection, that a sum of money, amounting to Rds. 2,400, which had been collected by another Society, under the immediate patronage of Government, had been allowed to lay in the Bank, unappropriated, ever since December 1822, a period of nearly two years, during which the sufferings of the settlers were at the greatest height. This fact speaks for itself; it requires no comment.

On visiting one of the locations, in company with my friend, Mr. RUTHERFOORD, we had the following fact related to us, by an officer in the army, commanding a military post on the frontier. In one of the families of the settlers, he described a poor woman confined in child-bed; her husband was in a dying condition on the same bed; she had buried a child in her own garden, a few days before, and the whole family were actually destitute:- they had actually been without food for some time. On becoming acquainted with their circumstances, he returned to his post, and sent them immediate relief, and lost no time in writing to one of the local authorities of the District, for the purpose of obtaining, for this suffering family, the assistance he could not supply. After waiting in vain for some time, for an answer to his letter, or of some notice being taken of the case through that letter, finding that the individual, to whom he had written, attended neither to the one nor the other, he then made application to a few individuals in Graham''s Town, who raised a small sum for this distressed family, by private subscription.”

 

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(Copy – D)

Colonial Office,

27th August, 1824,

Sir,

With reference to my letter to you, dated the 20th instant, I am now directed by His Excellency the Governor to transmit to you herewith a Copy of a Letter and its Enclosure (Vide (C. and Enclosure) which His Excellency called for from Dr. PHILIP, relative to the statement said to have been made by him at the last Annual Meeting of the Settlers'' Fund, for your information.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant

(Signed) P. G. BRINK

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. Landdrost of Albany.

 

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(Copy – E.)

Colonial Office,

27th August, 1824.

Sir,

I am directed by His Excellency the Governor to acknowledge his receipt of your Letter of the 24th instant, and in reply to the last paragraph of it, to say, that, in requesting to know the names of the parties alluded to, His Excellency was only desirous of being informed of the name of the office whose humanity has been so conspicuous, and of the suffering parties for whose relief that officer appears to have so laudably exerted himself, His Excellency would be particularly obliged to you for this information immediately, as he wishes to make a communication to the frontier on this subject by this day''s post.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) P.G. BRINK.

To: Rev. Dr. PHILIP.

 

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(Copy – F.)

Cape Town,

28th August, 1824

My Lord

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of Your Lordship''s letter, transmitted to me from the Colonial Office, 27th August, and have to express my regret, that I could not reply to it immediately, from the circumstance of my being from home when it was delivered.

In reply to Your Lordship''s request, I beg leave to remark, that, though I am convinced the names of the parties cannot be long concealed, and have no apprehension that the office, who communicated to me the circumstances, which are the occasion of this correspondence, can suffer by the disclosure of his name, yet, I am sorry, at the same time, to be obliged to add, that much as it would gratify me, to meet Your Lordship''s wishes in the present instance, I do not see how I can do it, without violating my honor, and the dictates of my consciences.

When I received the communication in question, accompanied with the positive injunction, that I should conceal the names of the parties, I cannot see how I can consistently declare those names, till I am released from the obligation I lie under, by the parties themselves, I am satisfied, Your Lordship will see this point in the same light in which I view it, and wait till you receive the names in the way in which I have no doubt they will be communicated, by the local authority, who has it in his power to give up the names, with the letter, said to have been sent to him, on behalf of the distressed family, for whom it was written.

I have the honor to be, My Lord,

Your Lordship''s most obedient humble servant,

(Signed) John PHILIP.

To: His Excellency the Right Hon. General Lord Charles Henry SOMERSET, &c. &c. &c.

 

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(Copy – G.)

Graham''s Town,

31st August, 1824

Sir,

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 20th instant, conveying the desire of His Excellency the Governor, that I will immediately obtain every information relative to a statement, the substance of which is contained in a paper, enclosed by you, made by D. PHILIP, at the Annual Meeting of the Settlers'' Fund, on the 18th instant, with a view to prove the indifference of the local authority in Albany, to the distresses of the settlers, and stating, that Mr. RUTHERFOORD had on the same occasion, stated, “that he knew, that the Landdrost had neither time to attend to the objects of the Society, not had he the inclination;” and I have the honor to inform His Excellency, that, as the case alluded to by Dr. PHILIP, is not stated, and the name of the distressed family is not given, I cannot answer the statement specifically, but from circumstances and inquiries I have made, I have reason to believe, it alludes to the family of W. HARDEN, of Mr. BAILIE''s party, and should it be so, I have the satisfaction of being able to shew, that Dr. PHILIP''s statement is utterly false. The enclosed documents, (Notation (a): Letters from G. DYASON, with Extract from Mr. BAILIE, and R. GODLONTON.) prove, that on my being acquainted with HARDEN''s situation, I paid immediate attention to it, and afforded the required relief in necessaries, bedding, and money, without delay.

The officer, who commanded at the Caffre-drift post, from November 1823, to February 1824, states, he never had such correspondence with me, as that represented by Dr. PHILIP, (Notation (b): Vide Enclosure, No. 2, from Captain the Hon. C. MONEKTON.) and I can declare upon oath, that I never received any letter or communication from any officer, upon HARDEN''s, or any other person''s case. Relief was, however, afforded through me, and I am therefore justified in stating, that Dr. PHILIP''s statement, if alluding to HARDEN, is equally malicious and unfounded, and that he has had no authority whatever for traducing my character as a magistrate and a man.

It is difficult to reconcile his suppression from the Government which I serve, of any circumstances of the nature he has represented, with the motives which he affects to influence him, in now making them public, for he could not have doubted, that, in the character he has assumed as a missionary, and a leading member of the Fund for relieving distressed Settlers, such a representation from him, would have been received with attention, when the purity of his motives would not have become questionable, and his proceeding would have been more fair and honest as he can only have withheld it for the purpose of calumniating the character of a public officer.

When I may be furnished with the circumstances and information, upon which he has made his assertions, I shall reply to them fully.

With regard to the statement made by Mr. RUTHERFOORD, I have the honor to submit to His Excellency, the impossibility of Mr. RUTHERFOORD having any grounds for making, or means of proving such vague and general assertions. I have, however, availed myself of the short interval of time, before the return of the post, to procure documents, of which I enclose copies, (Notation (c): Enclosure, No. 3, Rev. W. BOARDMAN, Lieuts. C. CRAUSE and A. BISSETT, R.N., Mr. P. CAMPBELL, Surgeon, Graham''s Town, Mr. W. CURRIE, Mr. G DYASON, Captain T. BUTLER, W. AUSTIN, Esq. Mr. J COLLIS, the District Surgeon, and W. HAYWARD, Esq. ) from several respectable individuals, which fully refute Mr. RUTHERFOORD''s assertions. I consider the testimony of these persons as conclusive and satisfactory as that of the whole community, (to whom I would not hesitate, if necessary, to appeal,) could be, but I shall add further documents by the next post, when I trust, His Excellency will perceive full and sufficient grounds, for the institution of legal proceedings against Mr. RUTHERFOORD, for the libelous aspersions of my character.

My relative situation in life with Mr. RUTHERFOORD, as well as with Dr. PHILIP, admits of no other mode of redress, and I must claim His Excellency''s protection against the malicious and cowardly insults of these persons.

I beg to take this occasion of stating, that I have never in any instance neglected or refused to afford relief to the distressed, when in my power. The Subscription made in 1822, to which His Excellency contributed largely, originated in representations made by myself of the distressed state of some of the Settlers; the articles provided for the sick, and lying-in women, were made up and arranged in my own house, under my own superintendance, and I am at this time considerably in advance from my private purse, for the relief of persons in distress; having been moreover one of the earliest contributors to the Settler''s Fund, in the Year 1820.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your Obedient servant

(Signed) Harry RIVERS.

To. P. G. BRINK. Esq. &c, &c. &c.

 

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(Copy – Enclosures to G.)

[No. 1]

Graham''s Town

30th August, 1824.

Sir,

I have the honor to inform you, with respect to the case of HARDEN and family, that they were supplied with necessaries and bedding by your order, and that you also in November and December last authorized Mr. BAILIE, the head of the party, to advance them money, which he did to the amount of 25 Rds.

The following is an extract of a letter from Mr. BAILIE on the subject, which I received yesterday:-

“The Landdrost gave me instructions to grant Mr. HARDEN 25 Rds. and Henry LLOYD, of Cuylerville, 20 Rds.”

I can also state that you expressed and manifested, at the time, great solicitude about HARDEN''s family, and directed Mr. BAILIE to use his discretion in relieving them to any extent. I am convinced that HARDEN''s must be the case alluded to by Dr. PHILIP, upon which, however, his information is totally unfounded and erroneous.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) Geo. DYASON, Field Cornet.

To H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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Graham''s Town,

28th August, 1824

Sir,

I have the honor to state, in reply to your inquiries as to nay relief or assistance having been afforded to a family named HARDEN, that on the 31st May, 1823, I received a letter from Wm. HARDEN, representing his helpless and destitute situation, occasioned by a severe illness with which himself and child were afflicted, and requesting me to submit his case to your consideration, in order that assistance might be afforded from the Fund, which he understood had been established at Graham''s Town, for the purpose of affording aid to Distressed Settlers, and that I accordingly, in compliance with this request, immediately made you acquainted with their case, and was, in consequence of such representation, directed by you to wait upon the Rev. W. GEARY, and request his advice and opinion as to the best means of affording them the required relief. Mr. GEARY stated, that, as the residence of HARDEN was so distant, (40 miles,) he was of opinion that Mr. G DYASON, the Secretary to the Fund, should, for the present, from his general knowledge of the characters and situation of the British Settlers, exercise a discretionary power in the supply of any necessaries to meet the exigence of their case; and that he should make those inquiries, as to the correctness of their statement, as should warrant such further exertions in their behalf, as their situation might appear to demand.

Upon stating Mr. GEARY''s opinion, you directed me to inform Mr. DYASON thereof, and to inquire from him if he had any knowledge of their then present situation, or of their characters. Mr. DYASON replied he had not been made acquainted with their destitute condition, and that he was sorry to state he could not recommend HARDEN to that consideration, to which a person of good character and conduct would be entitled. Upon my reporting this, you were pleased, nevertheless, to direct me to issue to the person who had brought the information of their necessitous situation, and which was accordingly done, quantities of rice, sago, oatmeal, and sugar; and you authorized me to state that their case would be taken into immediate consideration, and that, in the mean time, whatever necessaries they might be deficient of, should, upon application to yourself, be supplied.

Your intentions in their regard I immediately communicated to HARDEN by letter, and subsequently repeated the same assurance verbally, when I made it my business to visit them at their place of residence.

Being personally acquainted with this family, by their having been my fellow-passengers from England, I was disposed to render them all the service in my power, and being aware of the inadequacy of the Fund to meet the numerous cases which were submitted for relief, I was induced to draw out and circulate among my acquaintance, a petition, praying their contributions towards furnishing those necessaries and comforts which are, in times of sickness, indispensable, and the donations arising from hence amounted to about 150 Rds. This sum was by the suggestion of several persons who were acquainted with the improvidence and thoughtless character of HARDEN, laid out in necessary articles at the store of Mr. STONE, who was directed to furnish them from time to time, in such proportions as should prevent them being lavishly expended.

As you were made acquainted with the successful result of this measure in their behalf, and you had been previously informed of HARDEN''s improvidence, you stated to me that you conceived it would be unnecessary and imprudent voluntarily to supply further assistance, until the sum which had been thus subscribed for their relief should be exhausted. Of the propriety of such precautionary measure, I beg leave to state that HARDEN had only returned to his Location about he latter end of January, previous to his illness, from Graham''s Town, where he had been, for a considerable time, following the employment of a cabinet-maker, at which business, being a good workman, when inclined to exercise common industry, he was in the receipt of very large profits; and that, from the interest I was induced to take in his affairs, from consideration of the helpless condition of his family, I was applied to repeatedly during his illness for payment of the rent of a house which he had occupied while living in Graham''s Town, and other sums of money in which he stood indebted, and which had been left by him unpaid.

On the 28th June, 1823, John DUFFY brought a letter from HARDEN, stating his family were deficient in bedding, and you immediately ordered me to issue to the bearer, for their use, a pair of blankets, which was accordingly done.

I am not aware of any further assistance having been afforded from the fund under your control and direction; but I conceive, from the strong feeling of commiseration shewn by you, on every occasion I had the honor to allude to, or represent their case, that had you been aware of their wanting any necessary comfort, it would have been supplied; and that your intentions in their behalf were only frustrated by the unfortunate and premature death of HARDEN, which calamity was accelerated, if not occasioned, by dissipation, and an excessive addiction to ardent spirits.

I have only further to add that Mrs. HARDEN, shortly after the death of her husband, went to reside with a family of notoriously bad character, named KNOTT, from which period I have no knowledge of her circumstances, or whether she had applied for, or received, with the exception of a donation of 50 Rds., from the Settlers'' Fund Society in Cape Town, and which passed through my hands at that period, any further relief or assistance.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) R. GODLONTON

(*The attention of the Reader is particularly called to the contents of this letter, with reference to letter S.)

To H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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(Copy – Enclosures to G.)

[No. 11.]

Graham''s Town,

28th August, 1824.

Sir,

It having been publicly stated by Dr. PHILIP, at a Meeting of the Settlers'' Fund, last week, in Cape Town, that when he was in the Albany District in January last, it had come to his knowledge, that an Officer, riding in the neighbourhood of his post, (Caffre Drift,) has discovered a scene of unexampled distress in one of the families of the Settlers; that the Officer lost no time in writing to the Landdrost, for the purpose of bringing this case to his knowledge, but never receiving any answer whatever, he went himself to Graham''s Town, where he was equally unsuccessful, in obtaining any relief for the poor family, from the Authorities there, and returned to his post, bringing with him the small contributions of private individuals.

As I am informed that you were the Officer commanding at the Caffre Drift post in the months of November and December, 1823, and of January, 1824, I take the liberty of requesting you will inform me if you have any knowledge of the circumstances stated by Dr. PHILIP, or any recollection of the communications which he asserts were made to me, as I do not remember to have received them.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient Servant

(Signed) H. RIVERS

To Captain the Hon. C. MONCKTON.

 

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Graham''s Town,

28th August, 1824,

Sir,

In reply to your Letter of this date, I beg to inform you, that I commanded at the post of Caffre Drift, from the 25th of November, 1823, to the 8th February, 1824; and I can affirm that I never had communication with you, by Letter, or otherwise, upon the subject you mention.

I have the honor to be, Sir

Your obedient Servant,

(Signed) Carleton MONCKTON,

Captain 24th Regt.

Late Cape Corps, Infantry.

To H. RIVERS, Esq. Landdrost of Albany.

 

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(Copy – Enclosures to G.)

[No. 111.]

30th August, 1824.

Sir,

In answer to your letter, which I have this moment received, I beg to state, that I never, in any single instance, have found you inattentive to any representations of distress among the settlers; on the contrary, whenever I have applied to you for others, my applications have been always attended to, or satisfactory reasons assigned for their rejection, and you have generally concluded with asking, whether I had any more requests to make to the same purport. The request from you, soon after the devastation by the floods, and the conversation that passed when I waited upon you last, respecting the best mode of distribution of the charity, and which I purpose to answer in the course of the week, contain a sufficient refutation of the unfounded assertions alluded to in your letter. His Excellency also, in whose hands the continuation of my narrative is at present, would probably condescend to put it into the hands of Dr. PHILIP, Mr. RUTHERFOORD, or some other managers of the Fund, which would settle the business at once.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) W. BOARDMAN.

To H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

______________

Graham''s Town,

30th August, 1824,

Sir,

In reply to your letter, I can only say, that I feel a difficulty in finding language sufficiently expressive of my indignation at the vile and unparalleled attempt to asperse your character, and I trust you will be able to find out and punish those who have been the cause of it.

I feel most happy in stating, that some few instances have come within my own knowledge, of your having afforded relief to settlers, who stood in need of it; and I have no hesitation in affirming, that it is my opinion, that no real object of commiseration would have supplicated in vain.

I cannot let this opportunity pass, without observing, that I know of no such distress in this Colony, as has been publicly stated. I should like to be informed, who the people are, requiring eleemosynary aid, - not the labourer I imagine, who can procure two Rds. per day, or the mechanic, who can procure three or four. The truth is, that the only people distressed are some few of the more respectable class, who have spent their money in agricultural pursuits, which have not answered their expectations, and who from pride or inability, are rendered incapable of living by labour. There are but few men, however decrepid they may be, who might not get their living by herding cattle, or other easy employment.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

(Signed) Chas. CRAUSE,

To H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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Bathurst,

30th August, 1824,

Sir,

It having come to my knowledge that it has been stated at a Meeting of the Settlers'' Fund at Cape Town, that you had neither time or inclination to attend to, or relieve distress amongst the Settlers:-

I beg to state that from my own knowledge and experience, I know that you have been anxious to ascertain and relieve distress, and that, when I had occasion to consult with you on the subject of a loan, you heard me with the greatest patience, and, thinking it necessary, recommended it most cheerfully.

I also know, that the Field-Cornet here has had instructions to report to you, cases of real distress, in order to your relieving them; - I therefore feel satisfied, that the assertion made at the meeting in Cape Town, as regarding you in this respect, is altogether without foundation.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

(Signed) Alex. BISSET.

To H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

-----------------

Graham''s Town,

31st August, 1824

Sir,

In answer to the question which you have proposed to me, viz:- whether during the period in which I acted as District Surgeon in Albany, by your direction, I considered you as a man who evinced an inclination to attend to the distress of the Settlers? I beg leave to reply, that in that time (13 months) I have not known a single instance wherein you evinced a disinclination to attend to the distresses of Settlers, or others; on the contrary, I am ready to bear testimony of your anxiety to relieve real distress, whenever it presented itself in the District, and I can recount a number of instances wherein you afforded the most prompt assistance in distress: you first called me to assist in the case of real distress, and you personally visited the same case. I have attended in every part of the District to afford medical aid to distressed Settlers and others, by your desire, and the last act of my service in the District was attendance on a distressed Settler, to whose wants I know you contributed from your own private property. Your intention to the Widow BRIANT, whose husband was drowned in Salem, by affording immediate relief to her distressed infants; - your affording shelter to WIGGLE, whose hut was burned, and being the first to set a subscription on foot to relieve that distressed family, are among the instances which may be mentioned to prove, that, whatever your faults may be, (and few men are without faults,) the want of humanity is not one of your''s.

I feel in justice bound to make these assertions, having heard that the contrary has been affirmed in some other quarter; and I am convinced that every person who knows me, will acquit me of being actuated by any partial motives.

I am, Sir,

Your obedient humble servant,

(Signed,) Peter CAMPBELL, Surgeon

To H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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Bathurst,

30th August, 1824

Sir,

I have just seen a statement from you, that you had been publicly accused, of a want of inclination to assist the distressed settlers, and a very broad accusation it appears to be, an accusation, which I believe not to be true, for I know well, that you have made inquiries for those in distress, for the purpose of relieving them.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

(Signed) J. PAWLE

To H. RIVERS, Esq. &c, &c, &c

 

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Bathurst

30th August, 1824

Sir,

In reply to your letter of yesterday, I am to state, that the assertion made at a Meeting of the Settlers'' Fund at Cape Town, viz:- “That you had neither time or inclination to attend to or relieve persons in distress,” I consider to be totally unfounded and false. In every conversation with me on the subject, you have always expressed the greatest solicitude to be made acquainted with, and to assist, those who were in want. I have been directed by you to report such cases of real distress as came under my notice, and I have invariably found you had both time and inclination to listen to them.

On the other side is an extract from one of your letters to me on the subject.

I have the honor to be, Sir

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) W. CURRIE

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c, &c.

(Extract)

Graham''s Town,

11th November, 1823.

“I am happy to say I have had few or no applications for relief, in consequence of sufferings or loss, from the late bad weather; but should you know of any case of real distress, where you think assistance would be well, and ought to be afforded, I shall be obliged by your informing me, that I may, if in my power, procure relief; - I do not mean in money alone, but in meal, seeds for gardens, clothing, &c. &c. as circumstances may be.”

 

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Graham''s Town,

29th August, 1824.

Sir,

I had the honor of receiving your letter of yesterday''s date, acquainting me of its having been publicly stated, at a meeting in Cape Town, that you had not time to attend to the distress of the Settlers, and that if you had time, you had not the inclination; at the same time requesting me to state, whether I consider the assertion as correct; - I have, in reply thereto, much satisfaction in being able to contradict, and to declare in the most positive and solemn manner, that such assertion is totally incorrect, and has been made without the slightest foundation in truth. So far from there being any want of attention on your part, in affording relief to distressed Settlers, I feel much pleasure in bearing testimony to a knowledge of many acts of beneficence, and anxious solicitude in all cases where relief or assistance was required, both as regards sickness or want, or which I am the better able to testify, from a connexion with, and knowledge of, the Settlers generally, arising out of my being a Settler myself, a Field-Cornet in the District of Albany, and from having acted as Secretary to the Committee for the relief and assistance of poor lying-in Women.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) Geo. DYASON.

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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Location,

31st August, 1824

Sir,

I had yesterday the honor of receiving your''s of that date, and am sorry to find, that an attack has been made on your character. I am happy to have to say, that I always found you most willing to attend to me, even on the most trivial occasions, and have experienced your humanity on many.

I have the honor to be, Sir

Most obediently your''s,

(Signed) Thos. BUTLER

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c, &c, &c,

 

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Bathurst,

29th August, 1824

Sir,

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of this day''s date, relative to a statement that has been made at a meeting of the Settlers'' Fund in Cape Town, of your not having had time, that you wanted inclination.

In reply, I beg to state, that the claim daily made on your time by the Settlers, has rendered your situation a most unpleasant and arduous one, and that in no instance do I know of your having neglected any well founded application of the kind, made by the parties, and consider the charge malicious and unfounded.

From being situated in the midst of the Settlers, I have had almost a daily opportunity of witnessing the late conduct and exertions of the greatest portion of the Settlers, and it is my most decided opinion, that they have received more attention and assistance, and particularly within the last twelve months, than their situation required, and that the public were never more imposed on that they have been generally on the subject. In the ten parties near me, I do not know of a family, or even an individual, that can be considered in distress, - much of the distress that has been felt, has arose from imprudence and want of proper exertions.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient humble servant,

(Signed) W. AUSTIN, Heemraad

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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Bathurst,

31st August, 1824

Sir,

On perusal of your letter to Mr. CURRIE, of yesterday, I have in justice to state, that, having occasion to wait upon you in October last, you requested me to inform you of any instances of distress. In compliance with which, I mentioned the names of two individuals, who I know were promptly assisted upon their applying to you, and others afterwards.

I am, Sir,

Your''s, respectfully,

(Signed) James COLLIS.

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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Graham''s Town,

30th August, 1824,

Sir,

In reply to the letter, which you did me the honor to address to me this morning, I have to observe, that, as far as I know, the assertion, which has been made at a public meeting in Cape Town, that you had not time or inclination to attend to the distresses of the Settlers, is incorrect.

All those standing in need of attendance and medicines, have been uniformly referred to me, by you, with the utmost promptitude, and those requiring other comforts, have been regularly supplied with the same, from the stores sent here for that purpose.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

(Signed) Alexander COWIE, District Surgeon

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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Graham''s Town,

30th August, 1824

Sir,

In answer to your letter of this day''s date, I beg leave to inform you, that I do not recollect any instance, of individuals having stated to me, that you had not attended to cases of distress, among the British Settlers.

I have the honor to be, Sir

Your most obedient servant

(Signed) W. HAYWARD.

To : H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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(Copy –11)

Graham''s Town,

7th September, 1824.

Sir,

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your Letter of the 27th ultimo, transmitting, by direction of His Excellency the Governor, for my information, a copy of a Letter, and its Enclosure, which His Excellency had called for from Dr. PHILIP, relative to the statement made by him at the last Annual Meeting of the Settlers'' Fund; and I have the honor to state to His Excellency, that, as the name of the family, which is reported to have been suffering from want, and not to have been relieved by the local Authorities, has been withheld by Dr. PHILIP, I am still unable to give more specific information than that afforded in my Letter of the 31st ultimo; but, as I have not any doubt that I have identified the case to which Dr. PHILIP alluded in his speech at the Anniversary Meeting, I consider I have fully and satisfactorily repelled the calumnious assertion of that gentleman.

I must, however, in justice to myself, request, that His Excellency will require Dr. PHILIP and Mr. RUTHERFOORD to state the name of the Officer who gave them the information which Dr. PHILIP has promulgated, and the names of the persons represented to have been so distressed and neglected.

With regard to the unappropriated surplus of the Subscription made in 1822, I have the honor to state, that I have been in total ignorance of any such surplus existing, as I applied in December of that year, for any sum which might be disposable, after paying for the articles that had been ordered, by His Excellency, to be provided for the relief and comfort of lying-in and sick women, to which object the Subscription had been specially devoted, and then received 500 Rds. which have been appropriated; and that no communication of a further sum having accumulated in the Bank has been made to me.

I do not feel it necessary, at present, to enter into any comment upon the evasive and uncandid nature of the Letter, and its Enclosure, from Dr. PHILIP, of which you have transmitted a Copy to me; but as he states, that he did not point out the Landdrost by his own name, nor by his official designation, but, that “one of the local Authorities,” was his expression, I request Dr. PHILIP may be called upon to state, unequivocally, to whom he meant to allude by ‘one of the Authorities.”

I request also, that Dr. PHILIP may be called on to state what those “political causes” “connected with the sufferings of the Settlers” were, with which he was careful not to interfere; and, that if his intention be to insinuate that the conduct of the Landdrost, or the “local Authorities” towards the Settlers has in any way tended to create or aggravate any case of distress, he may state the instances; and further, that as he declares he argued against the adoption of a motion proposed by Mr. W. W. BIRD, “from want of time” to attend to the business, “on the part of the local Authorities, and the Settlers,” Dr. PHILIP may be required to state to what facts and circumstances he alludes, as evidence of the misunderstanding, with the existence of which he has been acquainted, but of which I declare my total ignorance.

I am not aware either of the knowledge which Dr. PHILIP may possess of the quantum of time at my disposal; nor do I conceive he has shewn that “respect,” which he considers “due to the feelings of the Settlers,” by endeavouring to interfere with, and shake their confidence in, the local Authorities, from whom, they have unqualifiedly declared, they have always received attention and consideration; but, on the contrary, it would appear, that he is now artfully and assiduously endeavouring to engender those feelings and dispositions, which he is desirous, for some reasons, should be supposed, and believed to have before existed; and that the “feelings of the Settlers” at large, have not been known, or consulted, in the line of conduct adopted by Dr. PHILIP towards the local Authorities.

With regard to the responsibility to which Dr. PHILIP alludes, for the result of the motion which was proposed, I consider it fortunate that an event should have occurred which has forced him to be open and explicit, and has afforded the opportunity of refuting calumnious reports: and I consider the “indignant” feeling, stated by Dr. PHILIP to have been felt by the Officer commanding the post, to be matter for private and personal explanation between himself and the Authority to whom he wrote, and not for Dr. PHILIP''s comment.

I have the honor also, after referring His Excellency to my Letter of the 21st Ultimo, respecting the statement publicly made at the Annual Meeting by Mr. RUTHERFOORD, to submit, in addition to those then transmitted, further Documents, one of them being a paper, signed by upwards of two hundred Settlers, declaring such statement to be incorrect and unfounded, which have been forwarded to me by several individuals, in refutation and contradiction of Mr. RUTHERFOORD''s assertions; by which I consider myself justified in stating, that Mr. RUTHERFOORD has wantonly defamed my character; - and in repeating my earnest request, that His Excellency will afford me redress and protection,

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) Harry RIVERS

To: P. G. BRINK. Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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(Copy – Enclosures to H)

[No. 1)

Graham''s Town,

2d September, 1824

Sir

Having heard that, at a meeting in Cape Town, it was stated, that you had not time, and if you had, you had not the inclination to listen to applications made to you by the Settlers, I have much pleasure in stating, that, in all the applications I have had occasion to make to you, you have shewn both inclination and wish to hear and serve me. There is one circumstance which I shall always remember with the greatest gratitude, - that three months since, when one of my family, my eldest son, was visited by the Almighty, not only with sickness, but ultimately with death, you, in the kindest manner, supplied me with comforts for him which I could not procure for money.

I feel myself bound in justice to make the above statement, and beg you will make what use you think fit of it.

I have the honor to be, Sir

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) Robt. Wood BAGOT, Captain, H.P., 47th Regiment

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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Caffraria

Sept. 2d, 1824

Sir

In reply to the queries proposed in your letter of the 29th ult., I have to say, that as far as has come within my knowledge, I consider the assertion referred to, and said to have been made at a public meeting in Cape Town, to be very incorrect.

During the time that I resided at Salem, it became my duty to represent to you the cases of several distressed individuals, - my applications were never ineffectual on the ground of any alleged want of time on your part to consider them, much less have I any reason to suppose, that you wanted inclination to relieve them. On the contrary, I have distributed relief to the distressed by your order; and I distinctly remember that we had several long conversations on the subject, in one of which you mentioned your determination to use your influence with the Governor, to induce His Excellency to promote, by his patronage, a Subscription for the Distressed Settlers.

This was shortly afterwards carried into effect; and I happen to have by me a letter of yours bearing date 1st July, 1822, in which you communicate to me, in strong terms of satisfaction, the successful result of your representation to His Excellency on this head.

I am at all times strongly averse to taking any share in the unhappiness of party disputes, but being formally called upon neither honor nor conscience allow me to hesitate in thus explicitly replying to your inquiries.

I am, Sir,

Your obedient servant

(Signed) W. SHAW *

(* The Reverend Mr. SHAW is a gentleman of great respectability, and a Wesleyan Minister attached to one of the Parties of Settlers in Albany.)

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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(Enclosure)

Copy of a Paragraph of a Letter from H. RIVERS, Esq. to the Rev. W. SHAW, bearing date, Graham''s Town, July 1st, 1822:-

“You will see, by the last Newspaper, that the Governor and Lady Charles SOMERSET have acted with great promptness and generosity on Mrs. RIVERS'' and my representation of the state of some of the Settlers, and that a liberal subscription has been commenced in Cape Town. I have also opened a subscription in Graham''s Town, which, in the few hours that it has been known, has received an equally kind support. The civilians, inhabitants, and military, have contributed. Clothing for the lying-in women, - comforts for the sick and old, - and medicines will be sent from Cape Town immediately; and I shall shortly be prepared to receive your reports of case deserving the relief intended to be dispensed by the proposed Committee. This is a subject which I have peculiar satisfaction in communicating.”

(A true copy, from the original in my possession.)

(Signed) W. SHAW.

 

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Graham''s Town,

September 2d, 1824

Sir,

In reply to yours of the 29th ultimo, I beg leave to state, that I never witnessed any such conduct, or disposition, on your part, as therein mentioned, and have the honor to be, Sir

Your humble and obedient servant,

(Signed) S. KAY

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. Landdrost.

 

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Palmiet Fontein,

September 3d, 1824

Sir,

In reply to your letter of the 30th ult., I beg leave to express my indignation at the attack made on your Character, (at a Meeting in Cape Town) for a want of inclination to relieve the distresses of the Settlers, which accusation I consider to be totally unfounded.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) John CRAUSE.

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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Palmiet Fontein,

Setptember 4th, 1824

Sir

In reply to your letter of the 30th ult. I beg to state, that I am not away of any instance of your having refused relief to Settlers in distress, and that consequently the assertion made use of (at a Public Meeting in Cape Town) is incorrect. I have further to add, that in any business you have had to transact for me, you have always shewn an inclination to meet my wishes, for which I feel much obliged,

And am, Sir

Your obedient servant.

(Signed) H.A. CRAUSE.

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

Belton,

September 4th, 1824

Sir

In reply to your question, it affords me great satisfaction to state, that I have ever received immediate attention from you, when need has required my waiting upon you, and that I have always felt greatly obliged by the kindness of your manner upon such occasions.

I have the honor to be, Sir

Your obliged and most obedient servant,

(Signed) William WAIT.

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c &c. &c.

 

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Graham''s Town,

September 4th, 1824

Sir

Having learnt with astonishment and indignation, that at a late Meeting of the Settlers'' Fund Society in Cape Town, it had been stated, that you had not time nor inclination to attend to, or relieve the distresses of the Settlers; and that in particular, a case of extreme distress had been alluded to, wherein you had refused assistance, although strongly urged thereto by the Officer commanding at the Caffre Drift Post, I feel myself, in justice and in duty, bound to declare, that from my own personal knowledge to the contrary, such assertions are unwarranted, and have no foundation in truth whatever; and that, having been for upwards of two years last past in constant daily attendance at your Office, I am ready to make oath, that during that period, in no single instance, within my recollection, have you, among the numerous applications for relief, declined attending to, or refused to afford assistance to the necessitous, but that to every case of which I have had any knowledge, you have given the earliest attention, and afforded the most prompt and efficient aid.

As an individual among the British Settlers, and as an Englishman, I cannot but feel abhorrence an disgust at the means which have been resorted to, in order to excite the sympathy of the Public in their behalf; and if the characters of the Settlers, as a body, are to be shamefully traduced, and their Magistrates libeled and calumniated, to gratify the personal hostility or party spirit, of a self-elected Committee, it then becomes an imperious duty on every honest mind to deprecate such proceedings, and to use every endeavour to prevent a generous Public from being further imposed on by exaggerated mis-statements and scandalous mis-representations.

I have the honor to be, Sir

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) R. GODLONTON.

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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(Copy – Enclosure to H)

[No. 11.]

Albany,

1st September, 1824.

Having heard it has been stated, that Mr. RIVERS, the Landdrost of Albany, had not time to attend to the cases of distress among the English Settlers, and that if he had the time, he had not the inclination; we feel it due to that gentleman, to declare that we consider the assertion to be incorrect and unfounded.

Miles BOWKER, Head of Party William POTTER
Nathaniel MORGAN, ditto James WEEKS
Richard M. SATCHWELL, ditto William PENNY
William LEE Benjamin BOOTH
William COCK, Head of Party James KIDD
Henry LLOYD George DUFFEL *
John MANDY, Head of Party Thomas WEBSTER
William THACKWRAY Thomas PALMER
R. WHITE, Act. Head of Party T. H. HALSE
Jeremiah HONEY James HANCOCK
G. SOUTHEY, Head of Party Joseph STEPHENS
Carry HOBSON Richard BOWLES
S. LIVERSAGE, Head of Party George BELFORT**
Hezekiah SEPHTON, ditto Benjamin LEECH
Charles MOUNCEY, ditto Robert BRADY
Edward TURVEY, ditto Frederick HAWKES
Richard HAYHURST, ditto William A MORGAN
William PIKE, ditto Charles LUCAS
Samuel JAMES, ditto Joseph RICHARDS
Charles HYMAN, ditto John CAWOOD
William BEAR Rev. W. BOARDMAN, Head of Party
Richard PEACOCK  
James WRIGHT William TROTTER
Charles PENNY William PRYNN
Thomas HOLMES James HISCOCK
John KEEVY Richard HARVEY
Henry ULYATE Charles WEBB
Robert GODFRY John BIGGS
Samuel ALLEN George OGILVIE
A. M''KENZIE John Ellis BIGGS
Joseph RHODES George TAYLOR
George HOWSE William HOGG
Thomas STRINGFELLOW William BIGGS
George BLAKEMORE William MUIRE
Thomas ROBINSON William LACEY
Philip DIXIE Thomas SAMUELS
C. ADCOCK Thomas BINGLE
Richard PRIOR James RICHARDSON, Head of Party
Robert PITT Robert WILDE
William VERITY James COWIE
Joseph RAY George TUTTER***
John ARMSTRONG Peter ELLAR
Benjamin WRIGHT Christopher WEBB
William BOND John EDKINS
Dennis HOLLAND Henry SPARKS
Thomas KENE**** Thomas CLARKE
James LEANY George GATEHOUSE
Robert A. POLE, Acting Head of Party***** Henry SHARP
George JENKINSON Henry MARSHALL
Charles WOOD Patrick KEOUGH
Robert RAWLINS Isaac WIGGILL
James RATHBONE George FAIRCLOTH
Benjamin NORDEN Richard FREEMANTLE
George CLARKE Robert HENMAN
Henry VOKENS William CHADWICK
James FITZGERALD Timothy DIVINE
Charles GRUBB John WILSON
George PEACH William ATWELL
Donald M”DONALD William DUDGE
Francis FYNN James DONOVAN
George PHILIPS Morris SLOWMAN
G. DYASON, Head of Party William STANTON
William THOMAS Thomas BROWN
James THOMAS James WHEELER
Charles KESTTELL John PURDON
Sarah CADLE Sarah POWEL
S. MEHRTEM F. W. HILES
William TARR Thomas BRENT
James SMITH Joseph KING
Samuel HAYES John GIDDONS+
Giles WILLAN Joseph KING, Sen.
Thomas PAGE Robert FOXCROFT
Henry HARPER George HODGKINSON
William DOUGLAS George ANDERSON, Act. Head of Party
John POULTON  
Thomas BAINBRIDGE George PALMER
Edward HELY++ Francis ALLISON
Richard FORRESTER William ELLIOT
Thomas MANLEY William CLAYTON
William FORD Benjamin KERTON+++
William MOUNTFORD Henry FOULDS
Abraham ROBINSON William HARTLEY
Samuel JENKIN George BROWN
Robert SAMPSON Thomas TORR
J.H. DIXON, Head of Party Joseph TROLLIP
David CAWOOD William TROLLIP
Joseph COOPER James USHER
James CAWOOD James RANDALL
Henry BRAN William BARTLETT
Joshua CAWOOD Philip HOBS
Tobias THARRAT Thomas LANHAM
William CAWOOD John FORD
Jesse PAXTON William ELLIOT
Jeremiah LONG Thomas WILLIAMS
William DENTON Charles EVANS
Luck WELCH Thomas JARMAN
John SANDERS John OBERA
C. WEDDERBURN, Act. Head of Party Thomas OBERA
John WHITEHEAD E. GRIFFITHS, Act. Head of Party
John M. BOWKER Thomas FODEN
William M. BOWKER Brabin BOWKER
Thomas Holdin BOWKER Walter CURRIE
George WILLIAMSON Alexander BISSETT
John JAMES Isaac DYASON, Sen.
John BUCKLEY Isaac DYASON. Jun.
Joseph THOMAS Benjamin HEWSON
Stephen BROWN James VICE
Abraham COLYER Donald GUNN
William BRALE Samuel WHITTLE
James LAPPAN Edward FORD, Head of Party

(A true copy, from the original in my possession.)

(Signed) Geo. DYASON

[Transcriber''s Notation: these I think should read –

* George DUFFIELD

** George BELFIELD

*** George FUTTER

**** Thomas KEEN

***** Robert POTE

+ John GIBBONS

++ Edward HEALEY

+++ Benjamin KIRTON]

 

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(Copy – I)

Colonial Office,

9th September, 1824

Sir,

In further reference to my letter to you of the 20th ultimo, relative to the statement said to have been made by Dr. PHILIP, at the last Annual Meeting of the Settlers'' Fund, I have received His Excellency the Governor''s Commands to transmit to you herewith a copy of a letter which I addressed, by his direction, to Dr. PHILIP, requesting to know the names of the parties alluded to, together with a copy of that Gentleman''s reply for your information.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient Servant,

(Signed) P. G. BRINK

To: Harry RIVERS, Esq., Landdrost of Albany.

 

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(Copy – K)

Beaufort Vale,

2d September, 1824

Sir

When I had the honor of seeing you last, you may remember that I proposed to lay before you and the Committee for the distribution of the money received by the Settlers'' Fund, a plan by which it might be laid out to the best advantage, as it may be productive either of the most beneficial or mischievous consequences. This plan, on the receipt of your letter, I committed to the flames, being determined to have nothing to do with those who have the management of the business, as, should it give general satisfaction they will arrogate to themselves the merit thereof; and if it meet with disapprobation, I know on whom they will lay the blame.

Although I detest party or political squabbles, yet I shall always feel happy in counteracting the effects of malevolence, and doing justice to calumniated merit. Having suffered much from secret malignity, I feel for my enemies in a similar situation; I leave you to judge, therefore, what must be my feelings in behalf of those whom I have reason to consider as my friends.

From Capt. CRAUSE, who slept at our house last night, I have the satisfaction to learn, that he has hitherto succeeded in his mission beyond his expectations; every one, to whom he applied, expressing a just abhorrence of the calumny. Mr. RUTHERFOORD, I trust, as a Gentleman, will give up his informant; if not, he ought to be compelled to do so, that the innocent may not be liable to unjust suspicion. He will, no doubt, be detected, and we shall have the pleasure of seeing the dirt that he has thrown at those above him, fall upon his own head. If the infamous assassin who has had the audacity to calumniate His Excellency, can be detected, I would willingly ride as far as Cape Town, on a pack bullock, with rotten eggs in my pocket, to pelt the rogue in the pillory.

If Mr. RUTHERFOORD''s assertions be intended to exclude you from any participation in distributing the benefactions, you are, in my opinion, under great obligations to him. It will be an arduous, invidious, and (from the persons with whom you would necessarily be connected) a most unpleasant business. For my part, although I most sincerely desire the prosperity of the Settlers, I will not throw away a word of advice upon the junto; if they be puzzled, as I believe they will, how to dispose of the money, they may throw it, for ought that I care, into the Great Fish River.

Solomon says, that “out of the abundance (or over-flowing) of the heart the mouth speaketh;” you will therefore be plased to excuse this incoherent rhapsody, and believe that I am, Sir,

Your obliged and grateful servant,

(Signed) Wm. BOARDMAN

To: H. RIVERS. Esq, Landdrost of Albany.

 

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(Copy – L)

Graham''s Town

14th Sept. 1824.

Sir,

With reference to my letters of the 31st ultimo and 7th instant, I have the honor to submit to His Excellency the Governor, in further refutation of the statements made by Dr. PHILIP and Mr. RUTHERFOORD, at the Annual Meeting of the Settlers'' Fund, a copy of a letter addressed to me by Mr. J. BAILIE, head of party.

I have the honor to be, Sir

Your obedient servant

(Signed) Harry RIVERS

To: P.G. BRINK, Esq.

 

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Copy – Enclosure to L)

Graham''s Town,

9th September, 1824,

Sir,

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of yesterday''s date, on the subject of the distresses of the late W. HARDEN and his family; and as to your inattention to the sufferings of the Settlers generally, as stated at a public meeting at Cape Town.

The circumstances of HARDEN''s death-bed being the very bed in which wife was confined, may have arisen from their having but one sleeping room, but their bed was a very large one, and there was another bed place in the same room, which I am not at this moment prepared to say was, or was not, occupied by Mrs. HARDEN at that time. HARDEN was constantly attended by the medical officers at Caffre-Drift Post, Messrs. MORGAN and MAIR, and was frequently visited by Captain CLARKE, and from the whole of these gentlemen he received many presents of necessaries and comforts. The family were never, during any period of these afflictions in want, as their account with me, for meat, flour, rice, tea, and sugar, can testify, besides which, a subscription to a considerable amount was raised during his illness amongst his fellow-tradesmen, and a supply of comforts was also furnished by your direction.

The child was buried in the garden at HARDEN''s own request, and he was subsequently interred beside the child, at Mrs. HARDEN''s desire, although a grave had been prepared for him, with considerable labour, in the public burial ground. Subsequent to his death, you may remember having directed me to purchase for the widow a good milch cow, or what other immediate necessaries she might be in want of, on your personal guarantee, until he next meeting of the Fund Committee should sanction an issue to her.

To the conclusion of your letter, on the subject of your general inattention to the distresses of the Settlers, and your not having time or inclination to relieve the objects who might present themselves to you for that purpose, living remote, as I do, from the Drostdy, I can only speak to what has come to my immediate knowledge. I applied to you on behalf of Mrs. HARDEN, and Henry LLOYD, and was immediately attended to, and obtained the required assistance.

T.P. ADAMS, to my knowledge has also obtained repeated and considerable assistance from you, which, with the other two cases, are the only three cases in my former party that have ever yet applied to you. I can further assure you that, in the littler intercourse I have with my fellow-settlers, I have not heard any complaints in support of the broad assertion so highly prejudicial to the general character I have always heard of you, both in your private and official capacities.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your most obedient servant,

(Signed) John BAILIE*

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

* The Reader will not fail to compare the contents of this letter, and of Mr. GODLONTON''s with

Dr. PHILIP''s statement relative to Mr. HARDEN''s family.

 

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(Copy – M)

Cape Town,

13th September, 1824

Sir,

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 30th ult. which only reached me this day, owing to the great rains in this quarter.

In reply to that part of your letter which states, that at a Public Meeting of the Members of the Fund for the Distressed Settlers, “It was stated that you had not time to attend to the distresses of the Settlers, and that if you had time, you had not the inclination.”

I must observe, that from my own knowledge, I have always found you ready and willing to afford your time to attend to the representations I have made to you on various occasions, and the many instances in which you have granted relief to the Settlers upon a proper representation.

These are convincing proofs to my mind, of your willingness to afford your time, and further proof of your inclination to attend to the distress of the Settlers.

I have also heard from various and good authority, of the great attention of your Lady to the applications of the lying-in women, and granting them necessary comforts required for such a situation.

These are to my mind satisfactory evidence against the above statement.

I have the honor to remain, Sir

Your most obedient servant.

(Signed) C.T. THORNHILL

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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(Copy – N)

Colonial Office,

15th September, 1824

Sir,

I am directed by His Excellency the Governor, in reference to your letter of the 28th ultimo, in which you observe, “that you do not feel competent to disclose the name of the Military Officer, to whom you alluded at the General Meeting of the Settler''s Fund Society on the 18th ultimo,” to request that you will have the goodness to inform His Excellency of the name of the suffering party, for whose relief, it is stated, application had been made in vain to one of the Authorities at Graham''s Town.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) P.G. BRINK

To: Rev. Dr. PHILIP

 

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(Copy – O)

Cape Town,

22d September, 1824

My Lord,

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of a letter, 15th September, from the Colonial Office, requesting me to furnish your Excellency with the name of the suffering Family, for whose relief application had been made in vain, to one of the Local Authorities in Albany.

In reply to your Excellency''s request, in this communication, I am sorry to be under the necessity of saying, that I cannot at present (for particular reasons which I cannot now specify) comply with your Excellency''s request; but I have the satisfaction of informing your Excellency, that I have written to Albany upon the subject by the last Post, and that on receiving a reply to this letter, I shall then be at liberty to say, whether I can disclose the names of the parties.

I have the honor to be, My Lord,

Your Lordship''s most obedient humble servant,

(Signed) John PHILIP.

To: His Excellency the Right Hon. General Lord Charles Henry SOMERSET,

Governor and Commander in Chief, &c, &c, &c.,

 

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(Copy – P)

Colonial Office,

24th September, 1824.

Sir,

Adverting to my last communication to you, dated the 9th instant, relative to the statement said to have been made by Dr. PHILIP at the last Annual Meeting of the Settler''s Fund, I am commanded by His Excellency the Governor, to transmit to you herewith a copy of a letter (Copy-N above) which I addressed, by his direction, to Dr. PHILIP, on the 15th instant, requesting to know the name of the suffering party alluded to, together with a copy of that Gentleman''s reply (Copy – O above) for your information.

I have the honor to be, Sir,

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) P.G. BRINK.

To: Harry Rivers, Esq. Landdrost of Albany.

 

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(Copy – Q)

Graham''s Town,

21st September, 1824

Sir

I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 9th instant, transmitting, by desire of His Excellency the Governor, a copy of a letter addressed by you to Dr. PHILIP, requesting to know the names of the parties alluded to in the statement made by him, at the last annual meeting of the Settlers'' Fund, together with a copy of that gentleman''s reply; and I have the honor

To repeat my request to His Excellency, that Dr. PHILIP may be required to state the names of the officer and the persons represented to have been in distress.

I shall not animadvert at this time on the conduct or motives of the officer, in enjoining Dr. PHILIP to conceal the circumstances he had related to him, or of Dr. PHILIP, in receiving the information under such injunction; but with reference to my letters of the 31st ultimo, 7th and 14th instant, I have the honor to submit to His Excellency, in refutation of the statement publicly made by Dr. PHILIP and Mr. RUTHERFOORD, copies of a letter addressed to me by Mr. W. OWEN, Head of Party, and of further declaration, signed by twenty-eight Settlers.

I have the honor to be, Sir

Your obedient servant,

(Signed) Harry RIVERS

To: P. G. BRINK, Esq. &c. &c. &c.

 

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(Copy – Enclosures to Q)

Spanish Reed Place,

12th September 1824

Sir

Having been recently informed of a most unmanly and malicious report, which has been industriously circulated in Cape Town, stating your conduct in your official capacity towards the Settlers in your District, (with a view no doubt of effectually prejudicing your character,) to be such as to warrant an assertion, that you have not their interest at heart; permit me, Sir, to say, that I feel bound, both in honor and in gratitude, from the prompt attention to business, and the polite treatment which I have at all times received from you, to contradict a statement, so evidently founded in error, and further, that I am well acquainted with, and will particularize, should it be made a question, several instances of private kindness, which could along emanate from feelings of benevolence..

I have no hesitation, Sir, in hazarding an opinion, that from the large and respectable list of names, which will appear to falsify this statement, that, in the midst of all good and disinterested men, your character for philanthropy will be more firmly established, than before you were thus undeservedly stabbed in the dark. Allow me, Sir, with my most sincere wishes, for the health and happiness of yourself and family, to subscribe myself, with great respect, Sir,

Your obliged and obedient Servant

(Signed) W. S. OWEN

To: H. RIVERS, Esq. &c. &c. &c

 

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Albany,

15th September, 1824

Having heard it has been stated, that Mr. RIVERS, the Landdrost of Albany, had not time to attend to the cases of distress among the English Settlers, and that if he had the time, he had not the inclination; we feel it due to that gentleman, to declare, that we consider the assertion to be incorrect and unfounded.

J. WAINWRIGHT, Head of Party W. HOLDER, Head of Party
James MOORCROFT George SMITH, ditto
Francis NIBBS John ROWLES
Thomas WHITE Wm. SEYMOUR
Francis P. BENTLEY Francis WITTAL
William STIRK William BLAIR
Peter TEAGON Robert STOCK
T. ROWLES, Head of Party William RICKARDS
John DUFFY Thomas BAKER
John Henry HEATH Robert WICKS
Richard ATWELL John SMITH
Henry KING Thomas JENKINS
John MAYTHAM W.S. OWEN, Head of Party
Philip KING P.R. MARILLIER

 

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(Copy – R)

Colonial Office,

27th September, 1824

Sir,

I am directed by His Excellency the Governor, in acknowledging his receipt of your letter of the 22d instant, in which you inform him that you cannot, for particular reasons, comply with His Excellency''s request, of furnishing him with the name of the suffering Family in Albany, which has been the subject of a late correspondence, to request you to say if the name of the Family be HARDEN; - inquiries which have been made by His Excellency leading him to conclude, that that was the Family alluded to in your speech on the 18th of August.

His Excellency will feel greatly obliged by an early reply.

I have the honor to be, Sir

Your obedient servant

(Signed) P. G. BRINK

To: The Rev. Dr. PHILIP

 

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(Copy – S)

Cape Town,

28th September, 1824

My Lord

In reply to your Excellency''s letter of the 27th instant, I beg leave to inform your Excellency, that to the best of my recollection I believe your Excellency has been correctly informed as to the name of the Family alluded to in this correspondence.

I have the honor to be, My Lord,

Your Excellency''s humble

(Signed) John PHILIP

To: His Excellency the Right Hon. General

Lord Charles Henry SOMERSET, Governor & Commander in Chief, &c, &c, &c

 

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APPENDIX

Dr. PHILIP having asserted at the General Meeting of the Society for the relief of Distressed Settlers, on the 18th of August, 1824 “that a Sum of Money amounting to Rds.24,000. which had been collected by another Society, under the immediate patronage of Government, had been allowed to lay in the Bank un-appropriated ever since December, 1822, a period of nearly two years, during which the sufferings of the Settlers were at the greatest height: - this fact,” Dr. PHILIP added, “speaks for itself, - it requires no comment:” – it has been deemed necessary to draw out a precise statement of the Receipts and Expenditure of that Fund may judge for themselves.

RECEIPTS Rds. Sk. St.
Amount of Voluntary Subscriptions 4,262 0 0
--------------------------------      
EXPENDITURE.      
Articles for distribution to Women and Children, sent to the Frontier,      
August, 1822, in the Locust, as per annexed List (No.1), amounting to: 1,352 0 0
Sums, &c. distributed by the Landdrost, to meet cases of urgent      
Distress, as per annexed Account (No.2) 829 2 0
Medicines sent to the Frontier, in the Locust, 4th July, 1823, for      
Distribution to the Settlers 783 5 0
Ditto, purchased at Graham''s Town 120 2 0
Articles prepared for distribution to Women and Children, the      
Same as those sent in August, 1822 1,352 0 0
  --------  --  --
Expenditure 4,392 1 0
Receipts 4,262 0 0
  --------
Receipts exceeded 130 1 0

(Signed) P.G. BRINK.

 

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No. 1

For the use of the Lying-in Hospital of Settlers'' Women in Albany, the following articles,

1822, 20th August, Bought of Hendrik HEEGERS Rds. Sk.
6 Mattresses, with two Pillows each 60 0
12 Blankets, at 6 Rds. 72 0
48 Sheets and Pillow cases, 180 ells, at 4 Sk.. 90 0
24 Shifts, 96 ells, at 5 sk. 60 0
12 Petticoats        48 ells    
24 Bed Gowns      64 –--    
                      --------    
                      112 – at 5 Sks. 70 0
12 Flannel Petticoats, 48 ells, at 1 Rdr. 48 0
12 Ditto Caps, 6 ells, 6 0
24 Pair grey Worsted Stockings, 2 Rds. 48 0
12 Cotton Shawls, 3 rds. 36 0
12 Rollers of Calico, 20 ells, at 4 Sks. 10 0
24 Handkerchiefs 12 0
6 Pair Shoes, at 3 Rds. 18 0
24 Towels, 6 Rds. 18 0
12 Check Aprons, 18 ells, at 4 Sks. 9 0
FOR INFANTS     
6 Flannel Receivers, 6 ells, at 2 Rds. 12 0
12 Ditto Rollers, 16 ells, at 5 Sks. 10 0
24 Ditto Shirts, 16 ells, at 6 Sks. 12 0
6 Ditto Caps, 1½ ell, at 1½ Rds. 2 2
18 Under ditto, 5 ells, at 6 Sks. 3 6
18 Scotch Cambric Caps, 3 ells, at 1½ Rds. 4 4
12 Flannel Petticoats, 12 ells, at 1 Rdr. 12 0
12 Cotton ditto, 12 ells, at 6 Sks. 9 0
24 Long Frocks, 72 ells 54 0
48 Napkins, 48 ells, at 4 Sks. 24 0
24 Towels (finer), 24 ells, at 6 Sks. 18 0
  Pins, assorted 6 0
1000 Needles 7 4
24 Pieces Tae and Bobbin, 4 Sks. 12 0
6 Pair Scissors, 6 Rds.; 1 dozen Thimbles, 2 Rds.;    
  1 doz Bobkins, 1½ Rdr. 9 4
  Thread, assorted, 8 0
  A piece of soft Linen, 24 ells, 20 0
2 Bed Pans, at 12 Rds. 24 0
1 Large Glyster Pipe, 9 Rds.; 1 small ditto, 6 Rds. 15 0
12 Sponges 6 0
  A Copper Boiler (4 gallons), 30 0
6lbs Arrow Root, at 4 Rds. 24 0
50lbs Sago, at 5 Sks. 31 2
6lbs. Oatmeal, at 1 Rdr. 6 0
6lbs. Grits 6 0
50lbs Pearl Barley, at 3 Sks. 18 6
50lbs. Ric, at 2 Sks. 12 4
10lbs. Tea, at 2½ Rds. 25 0
20lbs. Coffee, at 1 Rdr. 20 0
100lbs  Yellow Sugar, at 2 Sks. 25 0
12 Pint bottles Oil, at 2½ Rds. 30 0
1 Gridiron, Fryingpan, 8 pots assorted, 2 spoons,1 Flesh Fork 60 0
2 Doz. Tin soup places, at 10 Rds. 20 0
3 Ditto flat ditto, at 9 Rds. 27 0
3 Tin dishes 10 0
1 Soup Tureen and Spoon 8 0
12 Jugs 9 0
1 Iron Kettle and Chafing Dish 10 0
1 Doz. Table Spoons 4 0
1 Ditto Knives and Forks 8 0
1 Ditto Tea Spoons 3 0
72 Ells Check, at 5 Sks. 45 0
  A Brass Coffee Pot, Britannia Metal Tea Pot, Sugar Pot,    
  And Milk Pot 20 0
1 Doz. Cups and Sauces 9 0
8 Slop Basons 4 0
  Child''s Stew Pot 5 0
  A cask of Vinegar (19 gallons, at 1 Rdr.), Cask 8 Rds. 27 0
3 Packing Cases, 12 Rds.; 12 Gunny Bags, 6 Rds. 18 0
  Custom House Charges, Boats and Coolies, 10 0
    -------  --
  TOTAL Rdrs   1352 0
    -------  --

Received Payment, H.H.

 

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No. 2

Account of distributions, made on behalf of the Benevolent Fund for the relief of poor lying-in Women and distressed Settlers.

1823   Rds. Sk.
14 April, To cash paid for waggonhire, for articles, from  
  Algoa-Bay 154 0
  To cash paid Messrs. P HEUGH & Co. on account    
  Of the Widow FREEMANTLE, 57 2
  To cash Mrs. FREEMANTLE, 20 0
  To cash Mrs. HARTLEY, SAMSON, BRADFIELD,    
  And PIKE, for making up clothes and baby linen, for    
  Lying-in Women. 50 0
  To cash Mrs. BEGLEY, for ditto 33 0
  To Cash Mrs. BREETON, for relief 55 0
  To cash Mrs. KNOWLES 4 0
  To cash Mrs. ARMSTRONG 5 0
3 May To cash Mrs. FELMER 5 0
  To cash David HALL 5 0
  To cash Samuel MOLLET 10 4
  To cash George CLAYTON 5 4
5 July To cash paid the Rev. Mr. SHAW, for Mrs. FILMER 5 0
  To ditto, ditto, for ditto, to enable her to proceed to    
  Cape Town 20 0
  To cash paid Mr. BOWKER, for Mrs. HARDEN 50 0
  To ditto, ditto, for distressed Settlers in his    
  Neighbourhood 100 0
2 Dec. To cash, Bishop BURNETT 150 0
  To cash T. P. ADAMS 50 0
  To cash J. WALKER 50 0
     ----- ---

829        2

 

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ARTICLES

24 Baby''s Caps 24 Pillow Cases
24 Night Gowns 18 Rollers
24 Shifts 24 Shifts
12 Under Petticoats 12 Petticoats
12 Under Caps 48 Napkins
12 Flannel Wrappers 1 Piece of Chintz
12 Women''s Caps 23 Lbs. of Sugar
12 Flannel Petticoats Lbs. of Tea
24 Bed Gowns 5 Lbs. of Grits
12 Pairs of Sheets 5 Lbs. of Sago.

 

The above have been distributed amongst the following persons, between the 4th of September 1823 and 14th of August, 1824, viz:-

 

To Mrs. LLOYD     To Mrs. PIKE
BOULDS WRIGHT
JACKSON DONOVAN
FARLEY FENELETT
RALPH McKENZIE
MARSHALL GRAY
WIGGALL WHITEHEAD
EDKINS DIXIE
ADCOCK KEEVY
KING SWEETMAN
WILLIAMS STYLES

(Signed) H RIVERS

FINIS

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